Honey is distinguished:
- by origin
- by the way of getting
- by consistency (density)
- by color
- to taste and smell
By origin, honey can be natural (floral) and honeydew.
Natural, flower honey is produced by bees in the process of collecting and processing the nectar secreted by plant nectaries, both flowering and extra flowering.
Bees produce honeydew honey by collecting honeydew and honeydew from the leaves or stems of plants.
If bees have collected nectar from different plants, then such honey is usually called mixed, or floral.
If honey is obtained from one specific type of plant, then usually it is given the name of the plant from which it was collected. Beekeepers often call honey from the land from which it was collected by bees: meadow, field, steppe, forest, mountain, flooded, taiga. Honey is often called according to the geographical area associated with its origin.
In our country, for example, are known:
Bashkir and Far Eastern lime honey;
- Hawthorn honey
- Heather honey
- Cornflower honey
- Camel thorn honey
- Dandelion honey
- Rapeseed honey
- Bruised honey
- Phacelia honey
- Cotton plant
- Thyme honey
- Apple honey and many other varieties.
According to the method of extraction, honey is divided into centrifugal and honeycomb.
Centrifugal honey is obtained by pumping it out of the honeycomb cells using a honey extractor.
Honeycomb is the name given to honey supplied to the consumer in natural form together with the honeycomb. The trade in comb honey is not widespread in our country, mainly because when consuming comb honey, both the comb and the wax spent on their construction are irrevocably destroyed and destroyed.
In terms of consistency, honey can be liquid or shrunken, i.e. crystallized.
Liquid honey has varying degrees of consistency (viscosity). The viscosity of honey depends on more or less water content in it and partly on the ambient temperature.
In settled honey, depending on the size of the crystals, coarse-grained, fine-grained and salo-like cages are distinguished.
In coarse-grained honey, conglomerates of sugar crystals are more than 0.5 mm in diameter, in fine-grained honey – less than 0.5 mm, but are still distinguishable with the naked eye. Sometimes candied honey has such small crystals that the mass of honey seems to be homogeneous, fat-like.
By color, honey is divided into white, light amber (light yellow) and dark yellow.
White honey in a liquid state is transparent, like water (for example, fireweed honey). Light amber, creamy honey is the most common. Dark yellow varieties of honey are divided into amber and dark (buckwheat, heather).
Taste and smell.
Natural honey tends to taste sweet. A sharp sour taste is inherent only in spoiled, fermented honey.
The aroma (smell) of honey is determined by the characteristics of a particular plant. The honey collected by bees from one particular plant usually has its own characteristic taste and aroma. Unmistakably, for example, buckwheat honey can be identified. Linden honey, honeycomb honey, collected from sunflower flowers, etc. has a peculiar aroma. Mixed honey also has a peculiar aroma. However, the aroma of such honey is extremely varied and it is often impossible to determine its origin.